Package org.apache.synapse.transport.nhttp

Source Code of org.apache.synapse.transport.nhttp.HttpCoreNIOSender

/*
*  Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
*  or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
*  distributed with this work for additional information
*  regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
*  to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
*  "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
*  with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
*
*   http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
*
*  Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
*  software distributed under the License is distributed on an
*   * "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
*  KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
*  specific language governing permissions and limitations
*  under the License.
*/
package org.apache.synapse.transport.nhttp;

import org.apache.axiom.om.OMOutputFormat;
import org.apache.axis2.AxisFault;
import org.apache.axis2.Constants;
import org.apache.axis2.addressing.AddressingConstants;
import org.apache.axis2.addressing.AddressingHelper;
import org.apache.axis2.addressing.EndpointReference;
import org.apache.axis2.context.ConfigurationContext;
import org.apache.axis2.context.MessageContext;
import org.apache.axis2.description.TransportOutDescription;
import org.apache.axis2.description.Parameter;
import org.apache.axis2.handlers.AbstractHandler;
import org.apache.axis2.transport.MessageFormatter;
import org.apache.axis2.transport.OutTransportInfo;
import org.apache.axis2.transport.TransportSender;
import org.apache.axis2.transport.base.BaseConstants;
import org.apache.axis2.transport.base.ManagementSupport;
import org.apache.axis2.transport.base.MetricsCollector;
import org.apache.axis2.transport.base.TransportMBeanSupport;
import org.apache.axis2.util.JavaUtils;
import org.apache.commons.logging.Log;
import org.apache.commons.logging.LogFactory;
import org.apache.http.*;
import org.apache.http.entity.BasicHttpEntity;
import org.apache.http.impl.nio.reactor.DefaultConnectingIOReactor;
import org.apache.http.impl.nio.reactor.SSLIOSessionHandler;
import org.apache.http.nio.NHttpClientConnection;
import org.apache.http.nio.NHttpClientHandler;
import org.apache.http.nio.params.NIOReactorPNames;
import org.apache.http.nio.reactor.IOEventDispatch;
import org.apache.http.nio.reactor.IOReactorExceptionHandler;
import org.apache.http.nio.reactor.SessionRequest;
import org.apache.http.nio.reactor.SessionRequestCallback;
import org.apache.http.params.BasicHttpParams;
import org.apache.http.params.HttpConnectionParams;
import org.apache.http.params.HttpParams;
import org.apache.http.params.HttpProtocolParams;
import org.apache.http.protocol.HTTP;
import org.apache.axis2.transport.base.threads.NativeThreadFactory;
import org.apache.synapse.transport.nhttp.debug.ClientConnectionDebug;
import org.apache.synapse.transport.nhttp.debug.ServerConnectionDebug;
import org.apache.synapse.transport.nhttp.util.MessageFormatterDecoratorFactory;
import org.apache.synapse.transport.nhttp.util.NhttpUtil;
import org.apache.synapse.transport.nhttp.util.NhttpMetricsCollector;
import org.apache.synapse.commons.util.TemporaryData;

import javax.net.ssl.SSLContext;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.InputStream;
import java.io.InterruptedIOException;
import java.io.OutputStream;
import java.net.InetSocketAddress;
import java.net.MalformedURLException;
import java.net.URL;
import java.util.*;

/**
* NIO transport sender for Axis2 based on HttpCore and NIO extensions
*/
public class HttpCoreNIOSender extends AbstractHandler implements TransportSender, ManagementSupport {

    private static final Log log = LogFactory.getLog(HttpCoreNIOSender.class);

    /** The Axis2 configuration context */
    private ConfigurationContext cfgCtx;
    /** The IOReactor */
    private DefaultConnectingIOReactor ioReactor = null;
    /** The client handler */
    private ClientHandler handler = null;
    /** The session request callback that calls back to the message receiver with errors */
    private final SessionRequestCallback sessionRequestCallback = getSessionRequestCallback();
    /** The SSL Context to be used */
    private SSLContext sslContext = null;
    /** The SSL session handler that manages hostname verification etc */
    private SSLIOSessionHandler sslIOSessionHandler = null;
    /** JMX support */
    private TransportMBeanSupport mbeanSupport;
    /** Metrics collector for the sender */
    private NhttpMetricsCollector metrics = null;
    /** state of the listener */
    private volatile int state = BaseConstants.STOPPED;
    /** The proxy host */
    private String proxyHost = null;
    /** The proxy port */
    private int proxyPort = 80;
    /** The list of hosts for which the proxy should be bypassed */
    private String[] proxyBypassList = new String[0];
    /** The list of known hosts to bypass proxy */
    private List<String> knownDirectHosts = new ArrayList<String>();
    /** The list of known hosts to go via proxy */
    private List<String> knownProxyHosts = new ArrayList<String>();
    /** Weather User-Agent header coming from client should be preserved */
    private boolean preserveUserAgentHeader = false;
    /** Weather Server header coming from server should be preserved */
    private boolean preserveServerHeader = true;
    /**
     * Initialize the transport sender, and execute reactor in new seperate thread
     * @param cfgCtx the Axis2 configuration context
     * @param transportOut the description of the http/s transport from Axis2 configuration
     * @throws AxisFault thrown on an error
     */
    public void init(ConfigurationContext cfgCtx, TransportOutDescription transportOut) throws AxisFault {
        this.cfgCtx = cfgCtx;

        // is this an SSL Sender?
        sslContext = getSSLContext(transportOut);
        sslIOSessionHandler = getSSLIOSessionHandler(transportOut);

        // configure proxy settings - only supports HTTP right now (See SYNAPSE-418)
        if (sslContext == null) {
            Parameter proxyHostParam = transportOut.getParameter("http.proxyHost");
            if (proxyHostParam != null || System.getProperty("http.proxyHost") != null) {
                if (proxyHostParam != null) {
                    proxyHost = (String) proxyHostParam.getValue();
                } else {
                    proxyHost = System.getProperty("http.proxyHost");
                }

                Parameter proxyPortParam = transportOut.getParameter("http.proxyPort");
                if (proxyPortParam != null) {
                    proxyPort = Integer.parseInt((String) proxyPortParam.getValue());
                } else if (System.getProperty("http.proxyPort") != null) {
                    proxyPort = Integer.parseInt(System.getProperty("http.proxyPort"));
                }

                Parameter bypassList = transportOut.getParameter("http.nonProxyHosts");
                if (bypassList != null) {
                    proxyBypassList = ((String) bypassList.getValue()).split("\\|");
                } else if (System.getProperty("http.nonProxyHosts") != null) {
                    proxyBypassList = (System.getProperty("http.nonProxyHosts")).split("\\|");
                }

                log.info("HTTP Sender using Proxy : "
                    + proxyHost + ":" + proxyPort + " bypassing : " + Arrays.toString(proxyBypassList));
            }
        }
       
        Parameter param = transportOut.getParameter("warnOnHTTP500");
        if (param != null) {
            String[] warnOnHttp500 = ((String) param.getValue()).split("\\|");
            cfgCtx.setNonReplicableProperty("warnOnHTTP500", warnOnHttp500);
        }

        preserveUserAgentHeader = NHttpConfiguration.getInstance().isPreserveUserAgentHeader();
        preserveServerHeader = NHttpConfiguration.getInstance().isPreserveServerHeader();

        HttpParams params = getClientParameters();
        try {
            String prefix = (sslContext == null ? "http" : "https") + "-Sender I/O dispatcher";
            ioReactor = new DefaultConnectingIOReactor(
                NHttpConfiguration.getInstance().getClientIOWorkers(),
                new NativeThreadFactory(new ThreadGroup(prefix + " thread group"), prefix), params);
            ioReactor.setExceptionHandler(new IOReactorExceptionHandler() {
                public boolean handle(IOException ioException) {
                    log.warn("System may be unstable: IOReactor encountered a checked exception : " +
                        ioException.getMessage(), ioException);
                    return true;
                }

                public boolean handle(RuntimeException runtimeException) {
                    log.warn("System may be unstable: IOReactor encountered a runtime exception : " +
                        runtimeException.getMessage(), runtimeException);
                    return true;
                }
            });
        } catch (IOException e) {
            log.error("Error starting the IOReactor", e);
        }

        metrics = new NhttpMetricsCollector(false, sslContext != null);
        handler = new ClientHandler(cfgCtx, params, metrics);
        final IOEventDispatch ioEventDispatch = getEventDispatch(
            handler, sslContext, sslIOSessionHandler, params, transportOut);

        // start the Sender in a new seperate thread
        Thread t = new Thread(new Runnable() {
            public void run() {
                try {
                    ioReactor.execute(ioEventDispatch);
                } catch (InterruptedIOException ex) {
                    log.fatal("Reactor Interrupted");
                } catch (IOException e) {
                    log.fatal("Encountered an I/O error: " + e.getMessage(), e);
                }
                log.info((sslContext == null ? "HTTP" : "HTTPS") + " Sender Shutdown");
            }
        }, "HttpCoreNIOSender");
        t.start();
        log.info((sslContext == null ? "HTTP" : "HTTPS") + " Sender starting");

        // register with JMX
        mbeanSupport
            = new TransportMBeanSupport(this, "nio-http" + (sslContext == null ? "" : "s"));
        mbeanSupport.register();
       
        state = BaseConstants.STARTED;
    }

    /**
     * Return the IOEventDispatch implementation to be used. This is overridden by the
     * SSL sender
     * @param handler The NHTTP client handler instance
     * @param sslContext SSL context used by the sender or null
     * @param sslIOSessionHandler SSL session handler or null
     * @param params HTTP parameters
     * @param trpOut Transport out description
     * @return an IOEventDispatch instance
     * @throws AxisFault on error
     */
    protected IOEventDispatch getEventDispatch(NHttpClientHandler handler, SSLContext sslContext,
        SSLIOSessionHandler sslIOSessionHandler, HttpParams params,
        TransportOutDescription trpOut) throws AxisFault {

        return new PlainClientIOEventDispatch(handler, params);
    }

    /**
     * Always return null, as this implementation does not support outgoing SSL
     * @param transportOut The transport out description
     * @return null
     * @throws AxisFault on error
     */
    protected SSLContext getSSLContext(TransportOutDescription transportOut) throws AxisFault {
        return null;
    }

    /**
     * Create the SSL IO Session handler to be used by this listener
     * @param transportOut Transport out description
     * @return always null
     * @throws AxisFault on error
     */
    protected SSLIOSessionHandler getSSLIOSessionHandler(TransportOutDescription transportOut)
        throws AxisFault {
        return null;
    }

    /**
     * get HTTP protocol parameters to which the sender must adhere to
     * @return the applicable HTTP protocol parameters
     */
    private HttpParams getClientParameters() {
        NHttpConfiguration cfg = NHttpConfiguration.getInstance();
        HttpParams params = new BasicHttpParams();
        params
            .setIntParameter(HttpConnectionParams.SO_TIMEOUT,
                cfg.getProperty(HttpConnectionParams.SO_TIMEOUT, 60000))
            .setIntParameter(HttpConnectionParams.CONNECTION_TIMEOUT,
                cfg.getProperty(HttpConnectionParams.CONNECTION_TIMEOUT, 10000))
            .setIntParameter(HttpConnectionParams.SOCKET_BUFFER_SIZE,
                cfg.getProperty(HttpConnectionParams.SOCKET_BUFFER_SIZE, 8 * 1024))
            .setBooleanParameter(HttpConnectionParams.STALE_CONNECTION_CHECK,
                cfg.getProperty(HttpConnectionParams.STALE_CONNECTION_CHECK, 0) == 1)
            .setBooleanParameter(HttpConnectionParams.TCP_NODELAY,
                cfg.getProperty(HttpConnectionParams.TCP_NODELAY, 1) == 1)
            .setParameter(HttpProtocolParams.USER_AGENT, "Synapse-HttpComponents-NIO");

        if (cfg.getBooleanValue(NIOReactorPNames.INTEREST_OPS_QUEUEING, false)) {
            params.setBooleanParameter(NIOReactorPNames.INTEREST_OPS_QUEUEING, true);
        }
        return params;
    }

    /**
     * transport sender invocation from Axis2 core
     * @param msgContext message to be sent
     * @return the invocation response (always InvocationResponse.CONTINUE)
     * @throws AxisFault on error
     */
    public InvocationResponse invoke(MessageContext msgContext) throws AxisFault {

        // remove unwanted HTTP headers (if any from the current message)
        removeUnwantedHeaders(msgContext);

        if (AddressingHelper.isReplyRedirected(msgContext)
                && !msgContext.getReplyTo().hasNoneAddress()) {

            msgContext.setProperty(NhttpConstants.IGNORE_SC_ACCEPTED, Constants.VALUE_TRUE);
        }

        EndpointReference epr = NhttpUtil.getDestinationEPR(msgContext);
        if (epr != null) {
            if (!epr.hasNoneAddress()) {
                sendAsyncRequest(epr, msgContext);
            } else {
                handleException("Cannot send message to " + AddressingConstants.Final.WSA_NONE_URI);
            }
        } else {

            if (msgContext.getProperty(Constants.OUT_TRANSPORT_INFO) != null) {
                if (msgContext.getProperty(Constants.OUT_TRANSPORT_INFO) instanceof ServerWorker) {
                    sendAsyncResponse(msgContext);
                } else {
                    sendUsingOutputStream(msgContext);
                }
            } else {
                handleException("No valid destination EPR or OutputStream to send message");
            }
        }

        if (msgContext.getOperationContext() != null) {
            msgContext.getOperationContext().setProperty(
                Constants.RESPONSE_WRITTEN, Constants.VALUE_TRUE);
        }

        return InvocationResponse.CONTINUE;
    }

    /**
     * Remove unwanted headers from the http response of outgoing request. These are headers which
     * should be dictated by the transport and not the user. We remove these as these may get
     * copied from the request messages
     * @param msgContext the Axis2 Message context from which these headers should be removed
     */
    private void removeUnwantedHeaders(MessageContext msgContext) {
        Map headers = (Map) msgContext.getProperty(MessageContext.TRANSPORT_HEADERS);

        if (headers == null || headers.isEmpty()) {
            return;
        }

        Iterator iter = headers.keySet().iterator();
        while (iter.hasNext()) {
            String headerName = (String) iter.next();
            if (HTTP.CONN_DIRECTIVE.equalsIgnoreCase(headerName) ||
                HTTP.TRANSFER_ENCODING.equalsIgnoreCase(headerName) ||
                HTTP.DATE_HEADER.equalsIgnoreCase(headerName) ||
                HTTP.CONTENT_TYPE.equalsIgnoreCase(headerName) ||
                HTTP.CONTENT_LEN.equalsIgnoreCase(headerName)) {
                iter.remove();
            }

            if (!preserveServerHeader && HTTP.SERVER_HEADER.equalsIgnoreCase(headerName)) {
                iter.remove();
            }

            if (!preserveUserAgentHeader && HTTP.USER_AGENT.equalsIgnoreCase(headerName)) {
                iter.remove();
            }
        }
    }

    /**
     * Send the request message asynchronously to the given EPR
     * @param epr the destination EPR for the message
     * @param msgContext the message being sent
     * @throws AxisFault on error
     */
    private void sendAsyncRequest(EndpointReference epr, MessageContext msgContext) throws AxisFault {
        try {
            URL url = new URL(epr.getAddress());
            String host = url.getHost();
            int port = url.getPort();
            if (port == -1) {
                // use default
                if ("http".equals(url.getProtocol())) {
                    port = 80;
                } else if ("https".equals(url.getProtocol())) {
                    port = 443;
                }
            }
            HttpHost httpHost = new HttpHost(host, port, url.getProtocol());

            Axis2HttpRequest axis2Req = new Axis2HttpRequest(epr, httpHost, msgContext);
            Object timeout = msgContext.getProperty(NhttpConstants.SEND_TIMEOUT);
            if (timeout != null && timeout instanceof Long) {
                axis2Req.setTimeout( (int) ((Long) timeout).longValue());
            }

            // do we have a proxy configured?
            if (proxyHost != null) {
                // but are we supposed to bypass for this host?
                if (knownProxyHosts.contains(host)) {
                    // this has already been found to be a proxy host
                    host = proxyHost;
                    port = proxyPort;
                } else if (knownDirectHosts.contains(host)) {
                    // do nothing, let this request go directly bypassing proxy
                } else {
                    // we are encountering this host:port pair for the first time
                    if (!isBypass(host)) {
                        host = proxyHost;
                        port = proxyPort;
                    }
                }
            }
           
            NHttpClientConnection conn = ConnectionPool.getConnection(host, port);

            // Ensure MessageContext has a ClientConnectionDebug attached before we start streaming
            ServerConnectionDebug scd = (ServerConnectionDebug)
                msgContext.getProperty(ServerHandler.SERVER_CONNECTION_DEBUG);

            ClientConnectionDebug ccd;
            if (scd != null) {
                ccd = scd.getClientConnectionDebug();
                if (ccd == null) {
                    ccd = new ClientConnectionDebug(scd);
                    scd.setClientConnectionDebug(ccd);
                }
                ccd.recordRequestStartTime(conn, axis2Req);
                msgContext.setProperty(ClientHandler.CLIENT_CONNECTION_DEBUG, ccd);
            }

            if (conn == null) {
                ioReactor.connect(new InetSocketAddress(host, port),
                    null, axis2Req, sessionRequestCallback);
                if (log.isDebugEnabled()) {
                    log.debug("A new connection established to : " + host + ":" + port);
                }
            } else {
                try {
                    handler.submitRequest(conn, axis2Req);
                    if (log.isDebugEnabled()) {
                        log.debug("An existing connection reused to : " + host + ":" + port);
                    }                   
                } catch (ConnectionClosedException e) {
                    ioReactor.connect(new InetSocketAddress(host, port),
                        null, axis2Req, sessionRequestCallback);
                    if (log.isDebugEnabled()) {
                        log.debug("A new connection established to : " + host + ":" + port);
                    }
                }
            }

            try {
                axis2Req.streamMessageContents();
            } catch (AxisFault af) {
                throw af;
            }

        } catch (MalformedURLException e) {
            handleException("Malformed destination EPR : " + epr.getAddress(), e);
        }
    }

    /**
     * Send the passed in response message, asynchronously
     * @param msgContext the message context to be sent
     * @throws AxisFault on error
     */
    private void sendAsyncResponse(MessageContext msgContext) throws AxisFault {

        int contentLength = extractContentLength(msgContext);

        // remove unwanted HTTP headers (if any from the current message)
        removeUnwantedHeaders(msgContext);

        ServerWorker worker = (ServerWorker) msgContext.getProperty(Constants.OUT_TRANSPORT_INFO);
        HttpResponse response = worker.getResponse();

        OMOutputFormat format = NhttpUtil.getOMOutputFormat(msgContext);
        MessageFormatter messageFormatter =
                MessageFormatterDecoratorFactory.createMessageFormatterDecorator(msgContext);
        Boolean noEntityBody = (Boolean) msgContext.getProperty(NhttpConstants.NO_ENTITY_BODY);
        if (noEntityBody == null || Boolean.FALSE == noEntityBody) {
            response.setHeader(
                HTTP.CONTENT_TYPE,
                messageFormatter.getContentType(msgContext, format, msgContext.getSoapAction()));
        }
        response.setStatusCode(determineHttpStatusCode(msgContext, response));

        // set any transport headers
        Map transportHeaders = (Map) msgContext.getProperty(MessageContext.TRANSPORT_HEADERS);
        if (transportHeaders != null && !transportHeaders.values().isEmpty()) {
            Iterator iter = transportHeaders.keySet().iterator();
            while (iter.hasNext()) {
                Object header = iter.next();
                Object value = transportHeaders.get(header);
                if (value != null && header instanceof String && value instanceof String) {
                    response.setHeader((String) header, (String) value);
                }
            }
        }

        boolean forceContentLength = msgContext.isPropertyTrue(
                NhttpConstants.FORCE_HTTP_CONTENT_LENGTH);
        boolean forceContentLengthCopy = msgContext.isPropertyTrue(
                NhttpConstants.COPY_CONTENT_LENGTH_FROM_INCOMING);

        BasicHttpEntity entity = (BasicHttpEntity) response.getEntity();

        MetricsCollector lstMetrics = worker.getServiceHandler().getMetrics();
        try {
            if (forceContentLength) {
                entity.setChunked(false);
                if (forceContentLengthCopy && contentLength > 0) {
                    entity.setContentLength(contentLength);
                } else {
                    setStreamAsTempData(entity, messageFormatter, msgContext, format);
                }
            }

            worker.getServiceHandler().commitResponse(worker.getConn(), response);
            lstMetrics.reportResponseCode(response.getStatusLine().getStatusCode());
            OutputStream out = worker.getOutputStream();

            /*
             * if this is a dummy message to handle http 202 case with non-blocking IO
             * write an empty byte array as body
             */
            if (msgContext.isPropertyTrue(NhttpConstants.SC_ACCEPTED)
                || Boolean.TRUE == noEntityBody) {
                out.write(new byte[0]);
            } else {
                if (forceContentLength) {
                    if (forceContentLengthCopy && contentLength > 0) {
                        messageFormatter.writeTo(msgContext, format, out, false);
                    } else {
                        writeMessageFromTempData(out, msgContext);
                    }
                } else {
                    messageFormatter.writeTo(msgContext, format, out, false);
                }
            }
            out.close();
            if (lstMetrics != null) {
                lstMetrics.incrementMessagesSent();
            }

        } catch (ProtocolException e) {
            log.error(e + " (Synapse may be trying to send an exact response more than once )");
        } catch (HttpException e) {
            if (lstMetrics != null) {
                lstMetrics.incrementFaultsSending();
            }
            handleException("Unexpected HTTP protocol error sending response to : " +
                worker.getRemoteAddress(), e);
        } catch (ConnectionClosedException e) {
            if (lstMetrics != null) {
                lstMetrics.incrementFaultsSending();
            }
            log.warn("Connection closed by client : " + worker.getRemoteAddress());
        } catch (IllegalStateException e) {
            if (lstMetrics != null) {
                lstMetrics.incrementFaultsSending();
            }
            log.warn("Connection closed by client : " + worker.getRemoteAddress());
        } catch (IOException e) {
            if (lstMetrics != null) {
                lstMetrics.incrementFaultsSending();
            }
            handleException("IO Error sending response message to : " +
                worker.getRemoteAddress(), e);
        } catch (Exception e) {
            if (lstMetrics != null) {
                lstMetrics.incrementFaultsSending();
            }
            handleException("General Error sending response message to : " +
                worker.getRemoteAddress(), e);
        }

        InputStream is = worker.getIs();
        if (is != null) {
            try {
                is.close();
            } catch (IOException ignore) {}
        }
    }

    /**
     * Extract the content length from the incoming message
     *
     * @param msgContext current MessageContext
     * @return the length of the message
     */
    private int extractContentLength(MessageContext msgContext) {
        Map headers = (Map) msgContext.getProperty(MessageContext.TRANSPORT_HEADERS);

        if (headers == null || headers.isEmpty()) {
            return -1;
        }

        for (Object o : headers.keySet()) {
            String headerName = (String) o;
            if (HTTP.CONTENT_LEN.equalsIgnoreCase(headerName)) {
                Object value = headers.get(headerName);

                if (value != null && value instanceof String) {
                    try {
                        return Integer.parseInt((String) value);
                    } catch (NumberFormatException e) {
                        return -1;
                    }
                }
            }
        }

        return -1;
    }

    /**
     * Write the stream to a temporary storage and calculate the content length
     * @param entity HTTPEntity
     * @param messageFormatter message formatter
     * @param msgContext current message context
     * @param format message format
     * @throws IOException if an exception occurred while writing data
     */
    private void setStreamAsTempData(BasicHttpEntity entity, MessageFormatter messageFormatter,
                                     MessageContext msgContext, OMOutputFormat format)
            throws IOException {
        TemporaryData serialized = new TemporaryData(256, 4096, "http-nio_", ".dat");
        OutputStream out = serialized.getOutputStream();
        try {
            messageFormatter.writeTo(msgContext, format, out, true);
        } finally {
            out.close();
        }
        msgContext.setProperty(NhttpConstants.SERIALIZED_BYTES, serialized);
        entity.setContentLength(serialized.getLength());
    }

    /**
     * Take the data from temporary storage and write it to the output stream
     * @param out output stream output stream
     * @param msgContext messagecontext
     * @throws IOException if an exception occurred while writing data
     */
    private void writeMessageFromTempData(OutputStream out, MessageContext msgContext)
            throws IOException {
        TemporaryData serialized =
                (TemporaryData) msgContext.getProperty(NhttpConstants.SERIALIZED_BYTES);
        try {
            serialized.writeTo(out);
        } finally {
            serialized.release();
        }
    }

    /**
     * Determine the HttpStatusCodedepending on the message type processed <br>
     * (normal response versus fault response) as well as Axis2 message context properties set
     * via Synapse configuration or MessageBuilders.
     *
     * @see org.apache.synapse.transport.nhttp.NhttpConstants#FAULTS_AS_HTTP_200
     * @see org.apache.synapse.transport.nhttp.NhttpConstants#HTTP_SC
     *
     * @param msgContext the Axis2 message context
     * @param response the HTTP response object
     *
     * @return the HTTP status code to set in the HTTP response object
     */
    private int determineHttpStatusCode(MessageContext msgContext, HttpResponse response) {
       
        int httpStatus = HttpStatus.SC_OK;
       
        // retrieve original status code (if present)
        if (response.getStatusLine() != null) {
            httpStatus = response.getStatusLine().getStatusCode();
        }
       
        // if this is a dummy message to handle http 202 case with non-blocking IO
        // set the status code to 202
        if (msgContext.isPropertyTrue(NhttpConstants.SC_ACCEPTED)) {
            httpStatus = HttpStatus.SC_ACCEPTED;
        } else {           
           
            // is this a fault message
            boolean handleFault =
                msgContext.getEnvelope().getBody().hasFault() || msgContext.isProcessingFault();
           
            // shall faults be transmitted with HTTP 200
            boolean faultsAsHttp200 =
                NhttpConstants.TRUE.equals(
                    msgContext.getProperty(NhttpConstants.FAULTS_AS_HTTP_200));
           
            // Set HTTP status code to 500 if this is a fault case and we shall not use HTTP 200
            if (handleFault && !faultsAsHttp200) {
                httpStatus = HttpStatus.SC_INTERNAL_SERVER_ERROR;
            }
           
            /*
             * Any status code previously set shall be overwritten with the value of the following
             * message context property if it is set.
             */
            Object statusCode = msgContext.getProperty(NhttpConstants.HTTP_SC);
            if (statusCode != null) {
                try {
                    httpStatus = Integer.parseInt(
                            msgContext.getProperty(NhttpConstants.HTTP_SC).toString());
                } catch (NumberFormatException e) {
                    log.warn("Unable to set the HTTP status code from the property "
                            + NhttpConstants.HTTP_SC + " with value: " + statusCode);
                }
            }
        }
       
        return httpStatus;
    }

    private void sendUsingOutputStream(MessageContext msgContext) throws AxisFault {

        OMOutputFormat format = NhttpUtil.getOMOutputFormat(msgContext);
        MessageFormatter messageFormatter =
                MessageFormatterDecoratorFactory.createMessageFormatterDecorator(msgContext);
        OutputStream out = (OutputStream) msgContext.getProperty(MessageContext.TRANSPORT_OUT);

        if (msgContext.isServerSide()) {
            OutTransportInfo transportInfo =
                (OutTransportInfo) msgContext.getProperty(Constants.OUT_TRANSPORT_INFO);

            if (transportInfo != null) {
                transportInfo.setContentType(
                messageFormatter.getContentType(msgContext, format, msgContext.getSoapAction()));
            } else {
                throw new AxisFault(Constants.OUT_TRANSPORT_INFO + " has not been set");
            }
        }

        try {
            messageFormatter.writeTo(msgContext, format, out, false);
            out.close();
        } catch (IOException e) {
            handleException("IO Error sending response message", e);
        }
    }


    public void cleanup(MessageContext msgContext) throws AxisFault {
        // do nothing
    }

    public void stop() {
        if (state == BaseConstants.STOPPED) return;
        try {
            ioReactor.shutdown();
            handler.stop();
            state = BaseConstants.STOPPED;
        } catch (IOException e) {
            log.warn("Error shutting down IOReactor", e);
        }
        mbeanSupport.unregister();
        metrics.destroy();
    }

    /**
     * Return a SessionRequestCallback which gets notified of a connection failure
     * or an error during a send operation. This method finds the corresponding
     * Axis2 message context for the outgoing request, and find the message receiver
     * and sends a fault message back to the message receiver that is marked as
     * related to the outgoing request
     * @return a Session request callback
     */
    private SessionRequestCallback getSessionRequestCallback() {
        return new SessionRequestCallback() {
            public void completed(SessionRequest request) {
                if (log.isDebugEnabled() && request.getSession() != null &&
                        request.getSession().getLocalAddress() != null) {
                    log.debug("Connected to remote address : "
                            + request.getSession().getRemoteAddress()
                            + " from local address : " + request.getSession().getLocalAddress());
                }
            }

            public void failed(SessionRequest request) {
                handleError(request, NhttpConstants.CONNECTION_FAILED,
                    "Connection refused or failed for : " + request.getRemoteAddress() + ", " +
                    "IO Exception occured : " + request.getException().getMessage());
            }

            public void timeout(SessionRequest request) {
                handleError(request, NhttpConstants.CONNECT_TIMEOUT,
                    "Timeout connecting to : " + request.getRemoteAddress());
                request.cancel();
            }

            public void cancelled(SessionRequest request) {
                handleError(request, NhttpConstants.CONNECT_CANCEL,
                    "Connection cancelled for : " + request.getRemoteAddress());
            }

            private void handleError(SessionRequest request, int errorCode, String errorMessage) {
                if (request.getAttachment() != null &&
                    request.getAttachment() instanceof Axis2HttpRequest) {

                    Axis2HttpRequest axis2Request = (Axis2HttpRequest) request.getAttachment();
                    if (!axis2Request.isCompleted()) {
                        handler.markRequestCompletedWithError(
                            axis2Request, errorCode,  errorMessage,  null);
                    }
                }
            }
        };
    }

    // -------------- utility methods -------------
    private boolean isBypass(String hostName) {
        for (String entry : proxyBypassList) {
            if (hostName.matches(entry)) {
                knownDirectHosts.add(hostName);
                return true;
            }
        }
        knownProxyHosts.add(hostName);
        return false;
    }

    private void handleException(String msg, Exception e) throws AxisFault {
        log.error(msg, e);
        throw new AxisFault(msg, e);
    }

    private void handleException(String msg) throws AxisFault {
        log.error(msg);
        throw new AxisFault(msg);
    }

    public void pause() throws AxisFault {
        if (state != BaseConstants.STARTED) return;
        state = BaseConstants.PAUSED;
        log.info((sslContext == null ? "HTTP" : "HTTPS") + "Sender Paused");
    }

    public void resume() throws AxisFault {
        if (state != BaseConstants.PAUSED) return;
        state = BaseConstants.STARTED;
        log.info((sslContext == null ? "HTTP" : "HTTPS") + "Sender Resumed");
    }

    public void maintenenceShutdown(long millis) throws AxisFault {
        if (state != BaseConstants.STARTED) return;
        try {
            long start = System.currentTimeMillis();
            ioReactor.shutdown(millis);
            state = BaseConstants.STOPPED;
            log.info("Sender shutdown in : " + (System.currentTimeMillis() - start) / 1000 + "s");
        } catch (IOException e) {
            handleException("Error shutting down the IOReactor for maintenence", e);
        }
    }

    /**
     * Returns the number of active threads processing messages
     * @return number of active threads processing messages
     */   
    public int getActiveThreadCount() {
        return handler.getActiveCount();
    }

    /**
     * Returns the number of requestes queued in the thread pool
     * @return queue size
     */
    public int getQueueSize() {
        return handler.getQueueSize();
    }

    // -- jmx/management methods--
    public long getMessagesReceived() {
        if (metrics != null) {
            return metrics.getMessagesReceived();
        }
        return -1;
    }

    public long getFaultsReceiving() {
        if (metrics != null) {
            return metrics.getFaultsReceiving();
        }
        return -1;
    }

    public long getBytesReceived() {
        if (metrics != null) {
            return metrics.getBytesReceived();
        }
        return -1;
    }

    public long getMessagesSent() {
        if (metrics != null) {
            return metrics.getMessagesSent();
        }
        return -1;
    }

    public long getFaultsSending() {
        if (metrics != null) {
            return metrics.getFaultsSending();
        }
        return -1;
    }

    public long getBytesSent() {
        if (metrics != null) {
            return metrics.getBytesSent();
        }
        return -1;
    }

    public long getTimeoutsReceiving() {
        if (metrics != null) {
            return metrics.getTimeoutsReceiving();
        }
        return -1;
    }

    public long getTimeoutsSending() {
        if (metrics != null) {
            return metrics.getTimeoutsSending();
        }
        return -1;
    }

    public long getMinSizeReceived() {
        if (metrics != null) {
            return metrics.getMinSizeReceived();
        }
        return -1;
    }

    public long getMaxSizeReceived() {
        if (metrics != null) {
            return metrics.getMaxSizeReceived();
        }
        return -1;
    }

    public double getAvgSizeReceived() {
        if (metrics != null) {
            return metrics.getAvgSizeReceived();
        }
        return -1;
    }

    public long getMinSizeSent() {
        if (metrics != null) {
            return metrics.getMinSizeSent();
        }
        return -1;
    }

    public long getMaxSizeSent() {
        if (metrics != null) {
            return metrics.getMaxSizeSent();
        }
        return -1;
    }

    public double getAvgSizeSent() {
        if (metrics != null) {
            return metrics.getAvgSizeSent();
        }
        return -1;
    }

    public Map getResponseCodeTable() {
        if (metrics != null) {
            return metrics.getResponseCodeTable();
        }
        return null;
    }

    public void resetStatistics() {
        if (metrics != null) {
            metrics.reset();
        }
    }

    public long getLastResetTime() {
        if (metrics != null) {
            return metrics.getLastResetTime();
        }
        return -1;
    }

    public long getMetricsWindow() {
        if (metrics != null) {
            return System.currentTimeMillis() - metrics.getLastResetTime();
        }
        return -1;
    }
}
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